One of the most mysterious ancient sites composed of supermassive megaliths and stones that appear to be worked with laser-like tools was built thousands of years ago in modern-day Bolivia.
Located not far from another amazing site—Tiahuanaco—the ruins of Puma Punku have puzzled experts for decades.
Some 45 miles west of the city of La Paz in Bolivia, we find an ancient site that is unlike any other on Earth.
Shattering traditional views on ancient cultures, the archaeological site of Puma Punku features incredibly precise stones, precision cuts, and polished surfaces on stones that have defied explanation for centuries.
Some of the stones at Puma Punku were so finely polished that they appear smooth as glass.
Only a few places on earth display this type of stonework.
It’s as if thousands of years ago, an unknown culture used advanced tools to shape and form massive andesite stones. Some of these rocks have been cut with such precision that they fit together perfectly and are interlocked with each other without the use of mortar.
Even more fascinating is the fact that not a single sheet of paper can fit between some of these stones.
In this article, we take a look at Puma Punk and its history, bringing you 50 incredible facts about one of the most mysterious archaeological sites on the surface of the planet.
The ancient ruins of Puma Punku are located in modern-day Bolivia.
Puma Punku is located near Tiahuanaco, in fact, it’s less than a quarter mile northeast of Puma Punku.
Puma Punku and Tiahuanaco may have been in fact one massive complex.
Tiahuanaco’s most distinctive feature, other than the wall of faces, is the Gate of The Sun.
It is believed that, because of certain markings on stones found at Puma Punku, the Gate of the Sun was originally part of Puma Punku.
Puma Punku has a length of 116.7 meters and a width of 167.36 meters.
The archaeological site of Puma Punku consists of an unwalled western court, a central unwalled esplanade, a terraced platform mound that is faced with stone, and a walled eastern court.
Tiahuanaco may have been an ancient metropolis according to experts, as more than 40,000 inhabitants called it home.
Tiahuanaco features a massive wall which, according to some authors, displays all the races of mankind, even elongated skulls, people wearing turbans, people with broad noses, people with thin noses, people with thick lips, people with thin lips.
At its peak, the Tiwanaku culture dominated the entire Lake Titicaca basin as well as portions of Bolivia and Chile.
In the vicinity of Tiahuanaco, experts excavated a mysterious object called the Fuente Magna Bowl. The Ceramic bowl has Sumerian cuneiform and Proto-Sumerian hieroglyphic written on it.
Since Puma Punku is of great interest to scholars, the area within the kilometer separating the Puma Punku and Kalasasaya complexes have been surveyed using ground-penetrating radar, magnetometry, induced electrical conductivity, and magnetic susceptibility.
In Aymara—an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes—Puma Punku’s name means “The Door of the Puma.”
The archaeological site is a treasure of ancient history located deep within the Andean mountain. Puma Punku is located at an altitude of nearly 13,000 feet.
Given the fact that Puma Punku lies at an altitude of almost 13,000 feet, it means that the ancient site is above the natural tree line, which in turn means NO trees grew in that area.
The fact that no trees grew in the area challenges the idea that the ancient builders used wooden rollers to transport massive stones from where they were quarried.
Mainstream scholars argue that the massive stones used in the construction of Puma Punku were transported thanks to a large labor force.
Another theory suggests that the ancient builders of Puma Punku made use of the llama skin ropes and the use of ramps and inclined planes.
Researchers have found no evidence whatsoever that the ancient builders of Puma Punku knew about the wheel.
Despite the fact that Puma Punku is believed to have been built around 500 AD, many researchers claim that this ancient site, just as Tiahuanaco, could predate the Inca themselves.
The Ancient Inca denied having anything to do with the building of Tiahuanaco or Puma Punku.
This means that the culture that built these sites existed INDEPENDENTLY of the Inca, predating them as well.
Puma Punku is not isolated. It is part of a massive complex of temples, plazas and even pyramids, and is believed to have belonged to the ancient Tiahuanaco culture, which predates the ancient Inca by millennia.
Puma Punku features massive stones. But the fact that there are so many of them make makes Puma Punku’s stones amongst the largest found on the planet.
Puma Punku consists of a mixture of andesite and red sandstone.
Despite having been researched, analyzed, and studied by experts around the globe, not a single researcher has managed to explain how the ancient builders of Puma Punku managed to cut, polish and transport the stones at the site.
Modern day engineers argue that the base of the Puma Punku temple was constructed using a technique called layering and depositing.
Oral legends indicate that the first inhabitants of Puma Punku were unlike ordinary humans.
These ‘early people’ had the ability to ‘carry’ megalithic stones through the air with the use of SOUND.
The eastern edge of the Puma Punku is occupied by what is called the Plataforma Lítica.
The so-called Plataforma Lítica consists of a stone terrace that is 6.75 by 38.72 meters (22.1 by 127.0 feet) in dimension.
This terrace is paved with multiple enormous stone blocks.
One of the largest stones at Puma Punku is 7.81 meters long, 5.17 meters wide, averages 1.07 meters thick.
The estimated weight of this massive rock is 131 metric tons.
But this isn’t the only one. Another massive rock at Puma Punku is 7.90 meters long, 2.50 meters wide, and averages 1.86 meters thick. Its weight has been estimated to be 85.21 metric tons.
Both of these stone blocks are part of the Plataforma Lítica and composed of red sandstone
Puma Punku’s H Blocks are the best-known feature of the site.
The H blocks at Puma Punku have approximately 80 faces each.
Some authors suggest that given the precision cuts and incredible angles seen on Puma Punku’s blocks, it is possible that the ancient builders made use of prefabrication and mass production, technologies far in advance of the Tiwanaku’s Inca successors hundreds of years later.
Experts note that the precision with which these angles have been used to create flush joints is indicative of a highly sophisticated knowledge of stone-cutting and a thorough understanding of descriptive geometry.
As noted by researchers, many of the joints are so precise that not even a razor blade will fit between the stones. Much of the masonry is characterized by accurately cut rectilinear blocks of such uniformity that they could be interchanged for one another while maintaining a level surface and even joints.
One of the closest stone quarries used by the builders of Puma Punku was located some 10 km away, near Lake Titicaca.
The furthest identified quarry is believed to have been located near Copacabana Peninsula about 90 km away from and across Lake Titicaca.
According to archeological investigations, Puma Punku’s H blocks match each other with such an extreme precision that the architects most likely used a system of preferred measurements and proportions.
While it is amazing what the ancients achieved thousands of years ago in terms of transportation, design, and logistics, the ancient engineers that built Puma Punku and Tiahuanaco were also adept at developing a civic infrastructure at this complex, constructing functional irrigation systems, hydraulic mechanisms, and waterproof sewage lines.
Despite the fact we see ruins today, Puma Punku is thought to have been “unimaginably wondrous,” adorned with polished metal plaques, brightly colored ceramic and fabric ornamentation, and visited by costumed citizens, elaborately dressed priests, and elites decked in exotic jewelry.
There are some still unfinished stoles found near Puma Punku.
Experts say that the unfinished stones show some of the techniques that were used to shape the blocks.
Experts say that Puma Punku’s blocks of stone were initially pounded by stone hammers, which can still be found in numbers on local andesite quarries, creating depressions, and then slowly ground and polished with flat stones and sand.
Excavations have documented “three major building epochs, in addition to small repairs and remodeling”.