Stephen Hawking may be among the stars now, but he has managed to give the world one more magnificent scientific study, which was published in the Journal of High Energy Physics.
Titled “A smooth exit from eternal inflation?” discusses how our universe is one in a “multiverse” of infinite parallel universes.
In his final scientific study, Professor Hawking spoke about the universe, its beginning, the multiverse, and parallel universes.
The latest theory on the origin of the universe of Stephen Hawking, developed in collaboration with Professor Thomas Hertog, of the University KU Leuven (Belgium), was initially submitted for publication shortly before the death of Hawking.
Then a group of reviewers gave their approval for the publication of the full version.
Modern Big Bang Theories, and how they all may be wrong
Modern theories about the Big Bang postulate that our “local universe” appeared after a brief outbreak of “inflation,” reports Phys.org.
In other words, a small fraction of a second after the Big Bang, the universe expanded at an exponential rate.
It is generally believed that once “inflation” begins, there are regions where it never stops. It’s a never-ending inflation.
It is considered that the quantum effects can prolong inflation forever in some regions of the universe, so, generally speaking, inflation is eternal.
But they also present, within these regions, a kind of stable pockets (as would be our own universe) where inflation has ended, and stars and galaxies have formed.
Each of these bubbles would then be a unique universe, within a larger and always inflated multiverse.
Kinda’ makes sense
“The usual theory of eternal inflation predicts that globally our universe is like an infinite fractal, with a mosaic of different pocket universes, separated by an inflating ocean,” Hawking said in an interview last autumn, according to the University of Cambridge.
“The local laws of physics and chemistry can differ from one pocket universe to another, which together would form a multiverse. But I have never been a fan of the multiverse. If the scale of different universes in the multiverse is large or infinite, the theory can’t be tested.”
A simplified Version, easy to process
In their latest study, Hawking and Hertog argued that this explanation of eternal inflation, like Big Bang theory, is wrong.
Therefore, they created a simplified model of this behavior and a mathematical approach that could severely restrict the number of possible multiverses.
What would remain would be universes with physics similar to ours.
Both scientists used their new theory to derive more reliable predictions about the global structure of the universe.
They predicted that the universe that emerges from eternal inflation, at the limit of the past, is finite, holographic, and much simpler than the infinite fractal structure of the old theory of eternal inflation.
Proving the theory
For the theory to be proven, however, it will be necessary to develop it to the point of making concrete predictions about the gravitational waves emitted in the initial stages of the universe.
One could predict, for example, what kind of irregularity the gravitational waves should have left in the cosmic background radiation.
If the experimental observations coincide with the predictions derived from the theory, they could even offer indications of the existence of parallel universes.
If we can detect the evidence, we’ll better understand how our own universe and its laws came into existence after the Big Bang – and it could help us understand whether other universes are really out there.